KOBHUNG PANOPTICON IN THE RELATION OF HUSBAND-WIFE POWER: Phenomenology Study of Gender Religion In Madura Culture
Until now, Madurese people have their unique and different characteristics in representing the dimensions of their beliefs. One of them is the concept of kobhung which is an important place for religious activities and oversees the activities of family members. Although there are other functions, namely the economic and social functions played by the kobhung. This research discusses the role of kobhung among Madura culture; whose position is in the west (qibla) taneyan lanjheng (long yard) in each residential area. It functions as a center for male (husband) activity to transfer religious values to their children or their wives. On the other hand it functions as a symbol of supervision and control (panopticon) of family members, especially men (husbands) over women (wives). This is legitimized by the patriarchal tradition in the Madurese community which is reflected in the concepts of bhupa', bhabhu , ghuru, rato that was very thick This concept is a referential standard of Madurese compliance with hierarchical main figures. Therefore, this research outlines the cultural dynamics and the efforts of the wives -women who are controlled- in positioning themselves during patriarchal culture. This research is more into the qualitative type of phenomenology that looks at the dynamics of the husband-wife relationship through the role of kobhung. The data collection used was interview and observation techniques; while data analysis used the interactive analysis by Miles and Hubermann. This research found that women in Panagguan cannot be separated from the concept of "three-action", among others: adhandhan, arembi', and amassa’ (taking care of themselves, giving birth, and cooking). This concept is a manifestation of the devotion to the family which is believed to be natural (destiny). Therefore, they don't sue at all; they even received gracefully about their role in the household.